Jes Hathaway is the editor in chief of National Fisherman magazine and NationalFisherman.com.
Written by Jes Hathaway
Thursday, 15 May 2014
Alaska’s salmon season officially opened at 7 a.m. today with wet nets in the Copper River region.
For many Alaskans, salmon is the mother species. This one fish provides for the livelihoods of tens of thousands of people who work the salmon season on tenders, in canneries, and as captains and crew. Appropriately enough, the news magazine show “60 Minutes” aired a piece on the threats of farmed salmon to wild salmon populations on Mother’s Day, Sunday, May 11.
It opens with correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta traveling to a salmon farm north of Vancouver, British Columbia, with Marine Harvest’s Ian Roberts. Roberts deflects the question of whether open-ocean salmon farms are damaging their natural environment by claiming salmon farming is nearly altruistic in nature because it reduces pressure on wild stocks.
The problem with this argument is it simply doesn’t hold water. Fish farms do nothing to relieve pressure on wild salmon stocks so long as the wild stocks are well-managed. When we manage our fisheries for sustainability rather than to meet market demand, then the amount of fish on the market is fixed year by year based on — in the case of salmon — escapement goals. It is not based on the demand for fish as a protein.
If anything, one could argue that salmon farms merely hide behind the problem while actually making it worse. What of the pressure fish farms put on the wild fish they use for feed? Are those species as well managed as wild American salmon? Certainly the business of fish farming — as a private industry rather than a public resource — is more dependent on the ups and downs of the market. So how does their need for fish-based feed affect wild populations of fish globally?
Is that a moot question simply because farming is perceived as the way of the future?
“We farm everything we eat,” Roberts says on the show. “All our vegetables are farmed. All our meats are farmed."
As activist Alexandra Morton points out, these are not farms, they are feedlots. The damage fallow farms leave behind can take many years for nature to correct. And what of the risk of disease and escapement? Morton has found evidence of infectious salmon anemia among wild populations. That disease, she says, existed in Chile’s farmed salmon industry for 10 years before it exploded and did colossal damage to the populations of farmed fish. But there was no wild population at risk in Chile like there is here and in Canada.
While the rest of the food movement is urging safer practices for food sources and farming — away from feedlots and industrial agriculture — the fishing industry is being persistently edged out of the public’s right to access the last vestiges of truly wild protein.
“The ocean is the last place where we hunted and gathered,” says Roberts. Note his use of the past tense.
Shouldn’t the solution be to take a closer look at the way we eat what we eat and go from there, rather than assuming we will continue to consume in the same way and simply must manufacture the food differently?
“The problem is there is 7 billion of us now on this planet,” says Roberts. “And the oceans can't give us any more fish. We owe it to our oceans to make sure that we're providing an alternate to just capturing the last wild fish.”
Indeed. We also owe it to ourselves to make sure we’re not poisoning the last wild fish.
Written by Jes Hathaway
Tuesday, 06 May 2014
Nearly two months ago, Malaysia Airlines flight 370 disappeared from radar after it crossed into Vietnamese airspace between its departure port of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and its intended destination in Beijing.
As other news takes over the 24-hour cycle, hopes of finding the missing airplane also begin to fade, despite the help and involvement of governments from all over the globe.
Chandrika Sharma was one of the 239 people aboard the plane. In our June issue, author Paul Molyneaux profiles the executive secretary of the International Collective in Support of Fishworkers, who spent her career fighting for the rights of small-scale fishermen and the women who help sustain small fishing villages.
This struggle to maintain small fishing ports is nothing new in American fisheries. In late February, Congress approved a $75 million aid package in disaster relief funds, which was half of what proponents had requested. The aid will be distributed primarily to Alaska communities hit hard by a downturn in king salmon returns, Mississippi oystermen and groundfish fishermen all over New England.
Yes, these communities are relieved to receive some funds for their federally declared disasters. However, if you ask fishermen what they really want, it’s to keep fishing, not to survive on government funding. New gear could help some New England groundfishermen survive by helping them save money on fuel and reduce bycatch. Unfortunately, the Gearnet project that has been promoting research and experimentation with semipelagic trawl doors will not continue to be funded through fishery research grants. Find out more in Steve Eayrs’ Dock Talk on page 9 of our latest issue about how the project’s leaders intend to leave a very practical legacy that fishermen take advantage of.
Though the state of American fisheries is generally positive, we cannot ignore the plight of those who are struggling to survive. Individual fishing quotas have been praised as a solution for bringing back overfished populations, but they do not work that way across the board. Catch shares programs are causing New England and West Coast trawlers to face many hardships, both predicted and otherwise.
In many cases, IFQs do more collateral damage in fishing communities than any fishery management program we’ve ever seen because they privatize the public resource, putting all the advantages of a successful fishery in the hands of a few shareholders.
This is exactly the kind of wealth disparity and exclusionary management that Sharma was fighting.
The loss of a leader like Sharma could be devastating to the people she represented on the global political stage. Her colleagues believe she had no equal in terms of passion and the ability to persuade. How can we continue her legacy? By fighting to keep small fishing ports alive and thriving. We have the potential the lead the way for fishing villages in developing nations across the globe. I have no doubt that we can find more creative and constructive solutions than simply selling out to a privatized, Walmart-style approach to fisheries.
Photo: Chandrika Sharma celebrates the 20th anniversary of the International Collective in Support of Fishworkers; ICSFAdd a comment Add a comment
Written by Jes Hathaway
Thursday, 01 May 2014
The San Francisco Community Fishing Association, founded in 2011 by NF Highliner Larry Collins, offers something in between direct marketing and selling to the large processors. The association makes ice, offloads boats and sells the catch to wholesale outlets — while offering its members a fair price. Members get dock price with the bonus of profit-sharing. “We distributed quite a bit of money at the end of [last] year after expenses,” said Collins. The membership consists of 20 small, family-owned fishing boats based out of San Francisco’s Fisherman’s Wharf.
Collins was hoping they’d have settled on a price by the end of opening day for the Bay Area’s summer salmon season. “But most of my boats are trip boats. Most of my guys will be delivering Monday morning,” Collins said on Thursday, May 1. “They’re all out of cell phone range, so I have no idea how they’re doing.”
At the stroke of midnight on May 1, San Francisco Bay Area salmon fishermen were ready to wet their gear for the opening of the summer season. Despite the recent focus on the California drought, which will affect future runs, this year salmon fishermen look to reap the benefits of a predicted abundance of returns from a wet 2011.
Just a few years ago, the returns were so low that the season closed entirely for 2008 and 2009. The fishery limped its way back to full openings in 2011 through last year. The projection for 2013 was about 860,000 fish, and it was indeed a great year with strong dock prices.
This year, the estimate is about 630,000 fish. While it’s still a strong number, fishermen are worried about what’s to come. The entire industry is concerned enough to commit to moving salmon fry downstream by truck to aid them on their journey to the sea, bypassing riverbeds too dry to support the run. “We’re really worried about the drought,” Collins said. But for the first time in its history, the Coleman National Hatchery agreed to truck its fry to the bay. “That’s gonna really help,” Collins adds.
I for one have had enough freezer-stocked salmon for the winter. I’m ready for the fresh stuff (or as close as I can get to fresh wild salmon on the East Coast). But I’m not the only one hungry for the red-fleshed fish. Many West Coast salmon fishermen have had an easy time selling their catch directly to their customers right off the boat, and they get a good price for it. And word on the docks is that there are a lot of sea lions in the water.
I’m keeping my fingers crossed and my grill hot in hopes that some of those kings find their way to my local fish markets, no matter which route they take to get here.
Photo: NF Highliner Larry Collins; SalmonWaterNow.orgAdd a comment Add a comment
Written by Jes Hathaway
Wednesday, 23 April 2014
This week, John Hathaway (no relation), owner of Shucks Maine Lobster in Richmond, inched a few steps closer to finalizing the construction of a new lobster processing facility on the Portland waterfront.
There's been a little squawking about some possible compromises to the 950-foot Whaling Wall mural painted by artist Robert Wyland on one side of the now-vacant building on the Maine State Pier.
However, Hathaway has pledged to work with the city to preserve as much of the mural as possible while adding a loading dock and a door for employees to the building that will potentially house the 18,000 square-foot plant.
I am delighted that Hathaway plans to open the plant (ideally by summertime), which will offer as many as 70 new working-waterfront jobs in a town with a rich maritime heritage and a struggling working waterfront. As Hathaway has said, the alternative is to keep sending millions of pounds of our Maine lobster to Canada for processing and reimport it for the wholesale market as product of Canada.
Hathaway has also long been a strong proponent of the Marine Stewardship Council's approval of Maine lobster as a sustainable fishery. Now that Maine lobster carries the label, it only makes sense to take full advantage of the price tag the ecolabel carries by keeping the product in local hands from boat to throat.
Perhaps more importantly, a recent University of Maine study indicates that Maine's record lobster landings may start to slide. The numbers gathered from 11 Maine locations indicate the number of baby lobsters has declined by more than half since 2007.
If that is the case, then we ought to maximize the catch by keeping it off the long haul across the border and in the hands of local entrepreneurs like Hathaway.
Photo: Caitlin Hathaway, Shucks of Maine sales and operations manager, displays some of the company's innovative retail products; Jessica Hathaway
Written by Jes Hathaway
Tuesday, 15 April 2014
Though this 1937 lobster marketing video was filmed well before the era of Mad Men, those of us who are once again immersed in the show's backward glance at Americana (and often very backward cultural ideals) can find a cozy spot in this old newsreel.
"One Lobster? Yes, Sir! At Once, Sir!"
And what about the industry has changed in the intervening eight decades? The fishermen are still exposed to the elements, hauling traps, hoping for a good price and minimal shrinkage. And once again, many marketing dollars are being thrust at the healthy fishery whose dockside price is struggling.
And yet, the reputation for an in-shell lobster dinner remains pristine. Like the video says: "As the main course for a delicious dinner, he's tops!"
I can see Don Draper tossing his bib aside and diving in. Delicious, indeed.
(Special thanks to Good Morning Gloucester for posting this find.)
Written by Jes Hathaway
Thursday, 10 April 2014
This week Sen. Lisa Murkowski (R-Alaska) signed on to co-sponsor a bill proposed by Sens. Joe Manchin (D-W.V.) and David Vitter (R-La.) that would severely curtail the Environmental Protection Agency's ability to protect Bristol Bay from proposals like Pebble Mine.
The purpose of the legislation is to gut the Clean Water Act and prevent the federal agency from using its authority to disrupt business interests. The way the bill is written would also enable Congress to strip EPA's authority retroactively and prevent the final watershed assessment from closing the door on Pebble.
Murkowski claims that she supports the bill because she's afraid the Pebble decision is going to set a precedent that will negatively affect the business climate in Alaska. But that would only be the case if EPA were voracious in its approach, which it certainly has not been in this case.
EPA stepped into the Pebble fray because of a groundswell of support from a large and motivated population of fishermen and residents of the area. The agency didn't just come knocking on Gov. Sean Parnell's door one day flashing federal authority. The Commercial Fishermen for Bristol Bay lobbied members of Congress and appealed to the voting fishing public day after day for years to convince EPA to step in and assess Pebble Mine under the Clean Water Act.
If Murkowski is legitimately worried about the precedent this sets for the EPA stepping in, then she can comfort herself knowing that the precedent set here is that the EPA only steps in when there is a massive effort to bring it in.
This kind of "interference" doesn't happen because the feds are sitting on a golden EPA throne just waiting to quell the dreams of the little guy in a far-off state. It happens because the little guys band together to fight Goliath with Goliath.
Some people call it an inappropriate use of federal authority to intervene in what they consider a state issue. But if we want to talk about inappropriate uses of authority, here's a great example: a giant (foreign) mining company spotting a rich deposit and making back-room deals with representatives from state government regardless of the wishes of the residents and historic stakeholders of the area in which the deposit rests.
I know Alaskans are independent. I have lived in Maine for 16 years, and I grew up in Georgia. The residents of these states are also fiercely independent. I can absolutely relate to hesitation about having the federal government intervene. But if the state is not willing or able to step up and protect the fishing industry — its largest private sector employer — then don't the people of that industry have a right to find someone who will?
The EPA didn't volunteer to assess Pebble just so it could shut down a mine. The federal government stepped in because that's what the people in Bristol Bay begged them to do. Because that was the only way they saw that they could protect their jobs and their communities.
And why did they think that? Because of precedent. Not the precedent of the feds waving their Jolly Roger, but the precedent of how the state of Alaska has handled large mining projects. To date, the state has never shut down a proposal for a large mine, regardless of what the locals or scientists have to say about it. Why? Because it's good revenue.
That may also be true of Pebble. It would provide some good jobs. But what makes this situation stand out as a clear-cut case for protection is that there is already a stellar source of revenue to be found in Bristol Bay. And that source is completely natural, native and renewable. If we protect the habitat for salmon in Bristol Bay, the fish will be an annual source of income for thousands of people forever. Forever. No one can say that about any mine on the planet.
The companies that have a stake in resource extraction have a lot of power and money. I understand that they are powerful interests to have on your side. I would like to take this moment to ask Sen. Murkowski to show some of her Alaskan fortitude and just say no to selling out her state to big businesses.
Photo: Sen. Lisa Murkowski smiles in front of a king salmon; Lisa Murkowski via FacebookAdd a comment Add a comment
Written by Jes Hathaway
Tuesday, 01 April 2014
As most of our readers know, last year was an epic one for Alaska's salmon fleets. This year, as the opening story in our May issue's Around the Coasts section describes, the West Coast is looking particularly strong, especially the Columbia River.
According to National Geographic, a new report from the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences is sounding the alarm about these high returns and calling it "an uncommon case of too many fish in the sea."
The report points to resource competition between pink salmon and other marine life, focusing on Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands colonies of seabirds. Noting that pink salmon has a two-year life cycle, alternating between high and low returns, the researchers found that in the salmon's down years, the breeding success of seabirds like kittiwakes and puffins is much higher.
Actually, the National Geographic article stated the reverse — that in the pinks' abundant years, seabirds have less success breeding.
So the question is: Which came first? The puffin or the fish eggs?
Let's follow the logic:
First, seabirds and pink salmon are in competition for the same sources of food. Second, ostensibly the pinks' numbers are rising because rising ocean temperatures have increased their food supply. So doesn't it stand to reason that in the off years of pink salmon returns, the seabirds are also faring better than they once were?
How would the salmon exclusively be benefiting from the increased supply of zooplankton, squid and Atka mackerel?
The researchers admit that "very little is known about how open ocean ecosystems work." This is another step toward understanding more about the wild BSAI ecosystem. We may indeed have to rethink the way we manage salmon hatcheries in Alaska. But the precautionary principle goes both ways. Just because pinks outcompete seabirds every other year does not mean seabird populations are unsustainably low.
In the meantime, we'll celebrate the success of pinks, perhaps over supper.
Photo: Southeast Alaska pinks packed for processing; Jessica HathawayAdd a comment Add a comment
Written by Jes Hathaway
Tuesday, 25 March 2014
Oceana made a big splash last week with its "Wasted Catch" paper, touting details on the nine dirtiest American fisheries.
Like many of Oceana's campaigns, this "report" goes to great lengths to vilify U.S. fisheries for their bycatch rates without mentioning the efforts made on the industry side to reduce bycatch. (What better way to beat the drum for donations than to tell only half the story?)
Oceana's recommendations at the end of the report (which occupy half of a page out of a total 44) are perfectly in line with what I hear from most fishermen. (The key there is that I actually talk to fishermen.)
For example, Oceana would like to reduce bycatch, as would fishermen. The report also recommends that the industry avoid bycatch by using cleaner gear. If Oceana got involved in the process of gear improvement, it would find itself in a crowded field. Fishermen, fishing organizations and researchers all across the country would love to improve access to gear modifications. The problem is that our fisheries are managed by federal and state governments, so any tiny modification to gear must go through the slow-grinding wheels of government due diligence.
Oceana's staff also recommends finding a way to account for bycatch and discards. Well that's where the fishing industry takes it a step further. Fishermen would rather land fish than throw them overboard. So why not allow them to land bycatch (at no profit) and channel it into local food banks?
If you combine bycatch reducing gear with allowable bycatch landings, you would have a better idea of what fishermen are catching (by counting it at the dock instead of at sea), cleaner fishing gear and phenomenal sources of protein for the hungry.
If you want to be a part of the solution, then your solution should not be relegated to a few short talking points at the end of a long diatribe. I challenge Oceana to take a step away from the keyboard and the streams of federal data, and get involved in what's actually happening in U.S. fisheries. The picture is not as daunting as they would have anyone believe, themselves included. Fishermen all over this country are working hard to make this industry better every single day.
Kudos to all of you who truly care about the future enough to put on your boots and walk the walk.
Written by Jes Hathaway
Tuesday, 18 March 2014
Icy winter winds were whipping through the Northeast yesterday as I walked the show floor in Boston at Seafood Expo North America. So I was delighted to indulge in the classic summer treat of a fresh lobster roll made with Shucks of Maine flash-frozen lobster. The company, owned by John Hathaway (no relation), had on display an impressive array of retail and wholesale products featuring Maine's signature seafood.
I'm happy to report that the roll looked and tasted like fresh summer lobster. This could be the start of a marketing revolution for Maine lobster, which has been hampered by unpredictable prices as a result of the challenges of a predominantly live-product market. What doesn't go to restaurant and fishmonger lobster tanks once was shipped almost exclusively to Canada for processing. Hathaway is one of a few entrepreneurs determined to bring that industry back to Maine. Last year he processed about 4 million pounds and hopes to best that in 2014. So far, it sure tastes like a success.
A few hours before I found myself on the show floor, I kicked off the morning with the Center for Sustainable Fisheries board of directors — Dr. Brian Rothschild, former New Bedford Mayor Scott Lang and former Congressman Barney Frank — as we led our second national conference on the reauthorization of the Magnuson-Stevens Act. Many fishing communities across the country are desperate for some flexibility in the arbitrary rebuilding time lines and a commitment to improving science-based management. (See Melissa Wood's piece, "Flexibility a must for Magnuson.")
In the afternoon, Massachusetts' Senate Minority Leader Bruce Tarr (R-Gloucester) spoke to a National Seafood Marketing Coalition meeting about a bill he's sponsoring to start an industry-funded marketing coalition that would promote seafood harvested in the commonwealth. Though the coalition would promote all types of seafood (including wild and farmed product), the fund was largely inspired by the drastic quota cuts that have affected the state's groundfish fleets.
"No one can survive with a 77 percent reduction in the volume of their product," said Tarr.
On Sunday evening the Commercial Fishermen for Bristol Bay hosted a reception during which Bristol Bay Regional Seafood Development Association Executive Director Bob Waldrop announced that he's stepping down after more than eight years of service to the association.
What's next for Maine lobster, Magnuson, Massachusetts and Bristol Bay? Stay tuned.
In the meantime, enjoy this image of pure summer goodness.
Photos: Shucks of Maine lobster products; Jessica HathawayAdd a comment Add a comment
Written by Jes Hathaway
Tuesday, 11 March 2014
This spring, many loving parents will give their graduates a check, a hug, a copy of "Oh the places you'll go!" and send them on their way into the big wide world. In California this year, the scientists who have lovingly hatched salmon smolts will go to great lengths to make sure their babies make it to the big blue sea.
As a result of a 2014 drought, the Golden Gate Salmon Association pleaded with state and federal officials to aid the small fry from the Coleman National Hatchery in their trek from the upper Sacramento River to San Francisco Bay. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (which runs Coleman) has agreed to transport as many as 12 million of its juvenile salmon to the bay or the western delta unless drought conditions improve significantly by the release dates in April, May and June.
The plan is based on the status quo of state-operated hatcheries, which regularly cart their salmon babies to the bay and delta for release; the state has committed to moving even more via tanker truck this year because of drought conditions in Central Valley rivers.
“As more and more fresh water is extracted from the Sacramento River and Delta for delivery to San Joaquin Valley agribusiness, the salmon’s migration corridor downstream and through the Bay-Delta estuary has become a deadly gauntlet,” said GGSA vice chairman Zeke Grader, who is also the executive director of the Pacific Coast Federation of Fishermen’s Associations. “Add drought and the Central Valley rivers and Delta become virtually impassable for salmon.”
California’s salmon industry is valued at about $1.4 billion annually, and hatchery salmon could make up most of the 2016 harvest, when those fish mature.
These fingerlings are no small potatoes. Here's hoping they survive the journey.
Page 7 of 36
NMFS recently released a draft action plan for fish discard and release mortality science, creating a list of actions that they hope can better inform fisheries.
We know that fishermen have to deal with bycatch by discarding or releasing unwanted catch overboard, but there is a data gap regarding how those fish survive.Read more...
A new study has identified a set of features common to all ocean ecosystems that provide a visual diagnosis of the health of the underwater environment coastal communities rely on.
Together, the features detail cumulative effects of threats -- such as overfishing, pollution, and invasive species, allowing responders to act faster to increase ocean resiliency and sustainability.Read more...