The Boats & Gear blog is overseen by our Boats & Gear editor, Michael Crowley. It explores new construction projects, electronics, gear and equipment for the commercial fishing industry.
Written by Linc Bedrosian
Tuesday, 14 April 2015
From Alaska to Maine, fishermen set thousands of traps and pots every day. Not all of them come back. Lines part, buoys are destroyed by passing boats and tides and storms carry traps into deeper water. These are the infamous ghost traps that, in some cases, continue to fish for years.
There’s been a lot of effort to remove derelict traps, but last year NOAA launched four gear innovation projects to not only attempt to better understand the problem but to prevent traps from being lost in the first place. The projects received Fishing for Energy gear innovation grants administered by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation and funded by NOAA’s Marine Debris Program.
The projects are taking place in Washington’s Puget Sound, South Carolina’s Stono River and in Maryland and Virginia’s respective portions of Chesapeake Bay.
Crab mortality caused by ghost fishing is a significant problem in Puget Sound. It’s estimated that 30,000 crabs are killed each year in derelict pots, even though they have cotton panels designed to disintegrate and let crabs leave the pots. The problem is the pots’ design limits a crab’s ability to escape, even when the cotton panel is gone.
A project run by the Northwest Straits Foundation is testing several crab pot designs for their escapement rates to determine the most efficient pots. Recommendations will include trap modifications to improve escapement rates.
Some of the results will be released in the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife’s annual Fishing Pamphlet that informs fishermen of new rules and regulations.
In Maryland’s portion of Chesapeake Bay, NOAA ran a side-scan sonar survey in 2007 and estimated there were 84,567 derelict crab pots. After some initial work on technologies to reduce ghost fishing, it’s being suggested that commercial blue-crab fishermen might use side-scan sonar to improve the pot-retrieval rate.
In South Carolina, traps are lost when passing boats destroy floats on the surface or cut the trap lines. Researchers are comparing the standard single float and line to using PVC piping to protect the line and testing floats to find one made out of material that’s more durable.
What’s different about the South Carolina project is how the recovered crab traps will be recycled. They’ll be cement coated and then dumped back into the water to create oyster reef habitat. The cement provides a settlement substrate for oysters.
In Virginia, the Virginia Institute of Marine Science is testing biodegradable escape panels and visual deterrents on peeler crab pots. Thirty peeler pots were given biodegradable escape panels that were tested against 30 standard peeler pots. Preliminary results suggest no adverse effect from the biodegradable panels on the catch rate.
There are also indications that the color of the entrance funnel can deter turtles from entering a trap while enhancing blue crab catch rate.Add a comment Add a comment
Written by Linc Bedrosian
Thursday, 09 April 2015
Maine fishermen are starting to think about racing. But then again, even though the calendar said it was April 8, Penobscot Bay through the Down East coastline received another couple of inches of snow last night.
It's no wonder would-be racers are confused. On one hand they want to gear up for racing with blue skies, warm weather and the shrill screaming of jacked-up engines — probably a couple hundred rpms from pushing a piston through a block — sending boats slamming down a race course somewhere in Maine.
Yet still the snow fell last night.
The confusion this brings about is summed up perfectly in the following recent post on the Fans of Maine Lobster Boat Racing Facebook page:
"Holy crap it's race season!
Watch out for icebergs!"
Well, not to worry because they say spring is on the way. Then again, Maine has had snowstorms in June and July so maybe this year racers will be scraping snow off the wheelhouse windows.
In any case, sun or snow, here's the race schedule for 2015. As you can see, the three races that were absent in 2014 — Friendship, Harpswell and Searsport — are back in the mix.
Boothbay —June 20
Rockland — June 21
Bass Harbor — June 28
Moosabec (Jonesport/Beals Island) — July 4
Searsport — July 11
Stonington —July 12
Friendship — July 19
Harpswell — July 26
Winter Harbor — Aug. 8
Long Island — Aug. 15
Portland — Aug. 16
Pemaquid — Aug. 16
As you can see, Portland and Pemaquid are holding races the same day. I believe there's an attempt to have Portland or Pemaquid hold races on another day.
On another racing note, at this year's Maine Fishermen's Forum three people were nominated to the Maine Lobster Boat Racing Hall of Fame.
• Osmond Beal was a longtime Beals Island boatbuilder who turned out several worthy racing boats, including the wooden 40-foot, 10-inch Corned Hake. Ivan Ray owned the boat, which left many lobster boats in its wake. Beal also raced the Shanna & Erick, an H&H 27 built from a Beal design.
• Bill Hallinan raced the Apparition 2, a 38-foot Young Brothers, and was dominant in his class through the 1990s. The Apparition 2 was listed as having a 650-hp engine.
• Glenn Holland is best known in lobster boat racing circles for designing the 32-foot Red Baron, named after the German flying ace Manfred von Richthofen. The Red Baron, mostly run by Holland's father Corliss, had many closely fought and sometimes bitterly contested races with Arvid, Alvin and Colby Young's the Sopwith Camel. But the Baron and those races helped put lobster boat racing on the map. Holland hasn't been involved with racing for several years, but this winter the Red Baron was back in his shop (Holland's Boat Shop, Belfast, Maine), so maybe Holland and the Baron are returning to the race circuit.
Written by Linc Bedrosian
Thursday, 02 April 2015
In 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board published "Safer Seas 2013," a summary of accident investigations for commercial vessels. From a safety education standpoint, it was informative enough that boat owners used it in crew training and safety meetings.
This week the NTSB released "Safer Seas 2014." It covers a diverse group of nine boat and vessel types from tankers to cargo vessels to the tall ship Bounty, but commercial fishing boats and towboats take the top two spots for number of entries. There are five accident reports for fishing boats, including four sinkings and two deaths, which took place in 2012 and 2013.
Each report has color photos of the boat and summarizes the circumstances of the accident, including weather and sea conditions, and the crew's reaction once they realized they were in a bad place. That's followed by a summary describing the accident's probable cause.
When a boat sinks and isn't recovered it's hard to pinpoint the exact cause of an accident, but in at least two cases for commercial fishing boats, poor maintenance seems to have been the culprit.
The 110-foot wooden Moonlight Maid ("Safer Seas 2014" lacks dimensions for its boats, which would be a good thing to add for next year's report) was built in 1942 as a subchaser. She was on a run from Seward to Kodiak, Alaska, in heavy seas when a plank pulled loose and from then on the pumps couldn't keep up with the incoming water.
The NTSB said the probable cause was "detachment of portside hull planking... Contributing to the hull failure was inadequate maintenance of the aging wooden vessel."
Then there was the Long Shot, a 30-year-old shrimper with some very tired steel that went down in the Gulf of Mexico. In 10- to 12-foot seas, she was taking on water in the lazarette and the engines were losing power because water was getting into the fuel.
The NTSB determined that after initial lazarette flooding, the probable cause of sinking was "water contamination of its fuel-oil storage tanks, which led to failure of the propulsion and electrical generator engines and [increased] flooding of the lazarette compartment in heavy seas."
Sometimes something small lets go that ends up costing a lot of money. That happened with the 334-foot freezer trawler Arctic Storm when a fractured fitting on a fuel-oil vent resulted in fuel oil spraying onto a hot engine surface and igniting.
The boat was towed back to port and there were no injuries, but the fire's damage bill ran to $5 million.
Read these reports for yourself — and not just the commercial fishing boat accidents — and ask yourself if any probable causes recounted here apply to your boat.
Written by MIchael Crowley
Tuesday, 24 March 2015
There's nothing like a gathering of the fisherman's clan or a good boat show to help get through the winter doldrums.
Out in northern California snow has not been the problem it's been here in Maine. In fact they could use snow, lots of it, to relieve a freshwater drought. But that's not why fishermen will be coming to the Longshoremen's Hall in Oakland, Calif., this Saturday from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m.
It's a chance to meet, greet and maybe get a deal on that fishing gear you've been putting off buying. It's the annual Swap Meet put on by the Small Boat Commercial Salmon Fishermen's Association. Billed as the "biggest event of its kind on the West Coast," the Swap Meet offers fishermen a chance to buy new gear at discounted prices and trade in used gear.
When you aren't bargaining for fishing gear, the Coast Guard will be there to test your EPIRB, and you can have other safety equipment checked and certified as well.
If you have fisheries questions, you'll probably get some of them answered by representatives from the Institute for Fisheries, the California Department of Fish & Game and the California Salmon Council. There will also be a seminar on black box electronics, another on refrigeration and Pro-Troll reportedly has some deals for commercial trollers.
In the past upwards of 500 fishermen have attended the Swap Meet, the association says. No doubt many of them will take advantage of a barbecue the association will hold there.
Across the country, the gathering that took place in Portland, Maine, this past weekend was to get people thinking about spring and ignore the record setting snowfalls and plenty of really cold weather.
Unfortunately, part of the weekend it was blowing like stink, pushing the wind-chill factor below zero, but fortunately there was an escape — if only for a few hours. It was the Maine Boatbuilders Show.
Held each year along the Portland waterfront in several big, ancient looking wooden buildings owned by Portland Yacht Services, the show is packed with boats on the bottom levels, and vendors and food up above.
Richard Pulsifer from Brunswick, Maine, was there with one of his partially completed Pulsifer Hampton Boats. It's a 22-foot wooden boat based on a design of the Casco Bay Hampton, a Maine lobster boat built in 1902 by Charlie Coombs. With just the hull, frames and floor timbers in place it was easy to see that this is a stout boat and very well built.
About 20 feet away from the Pulsifer Hampton, was the Northern Rose, a Torrey Island 29-foot wooden sloop design by the late Joel White of the Brooklin Boat Yard in Brooklin, Maine. The sweet, clean lines of this double-ender cutter were attracting a lot of attention.
Someone had bought the design, started building the boat and died with not much more than the hull completed. Brooklin Boat Yard finished the job and is due to launch it this May.
Way in the back of the building, past a slew of high-end yachts and a few fiberglass workboats, was another boat with its own gathering. That was the 34-foot Merganser, a wooden lobster boat built by Will Frost in 1948 when he was building boats in Portland. When it was built, some considered the Merganser the finest lobster boat hull ever built.
Merganser still retains her lobster boat look but these days she is strictly a recreational boat.
Looking at Merganser or thinking about hoisting the mainsail on the Northern Rose, it was momentarily easy to image a sunny day and running down the Maine coast before a warm summer breeze.
Written by Linc Bedrosian
Thursday, 19 March 2015
Dale Williams admits he was on his soapbox. Williams is the owner of Williams Fabrication, a boatyard in Bayou La Batre, Ala., that builds fishing boats for Gulf of Mexico and East Coast fishermen. He was lecturing a member of the Coast Guard who had come to the boatyard to see if the scallop boats he was building would meet class or load line regulations.
"You walk on a boat and start looking for correct documentation," Williams began. "You ask do you have a flare kit? Do you have safety inspection on the life raft? And walk by a watertight door that the dogs don't even work on and some are missing, and then go into the engine room to see if it has a fire extinguisher and walk by a bilge manifold rusted through, or a bulkhead gland held up by a string." Then he adds, "I've got pictures."
What set Williams off was the whole idea of having to class boats 50 feet and over, supposedly to make them safer. That, he says, "is a bunch of crap. If the Coast Guard would implement the rules on the books now, boats would be a lot safer."
Not only will classing not make fishing boats safer, the process will push the cost of a boat up so high "it will put us out of business," says Williams. For instance, an engine outfit he was talking to figured that to class a new engine would drive the price up by 25 percent. "What does that do to increase the safety of a boat? Nothing," Williams says.
Add to that all the steel, welding material, piping, pumps and wiring that has to be approved by a classification society, plus all the drawings, and, he says, "you create jobs for other people and put us out of business."
Oh, and as for the boat owner who likes to come to the building site and make changes while the boat is being built? No more. Or if changes are made, it's only after new drawings are submitted to and reviewed by the classification society. If the classing society has a backlog, that adds more time and money to the process.
Then there's the guy who started as a deckhand and wants to some day own his own boat. The cost to build a new boat makes that a much more elusive dream.
This is an issue "that has got to be addressed," says Williams.
He's not the only one who feels this way. Boatbuilders, naval architects and a few — very few — fishermen have talked about their displeasure with the regulation. But they are all isolated voices, and as long as they remain that way and lack legislative backers or lobbying groups, the situation won't change.
A big part of the problem is the balkanization of much of the fishing industry by region and boat types, resulting in the lack of a united front when it comes to something as basic as determining how safe the boat on which you'll be fishing is. It's basically a question of control and now that is being left up to the politicians.
In the workboat industry there is an outfit called the National Association of Charterboat Operators. They have done a lot of work for a diverse group of boat owners engaged in things such as fishing, sailing, diving, eco-tours and excursion boats.
Is something like that possible for owners of seiners, crabbers, scallopers and the rest of the fishing fleets? It's an idea. The other option is continuing to let members of Congress determine what kind of boat is safe. And how many Congressmen and women ever get close to a fishing boat, let alone operate one?
Written by Michael Crowley
Tuesday, 10 March 2015
Despite the fact that fishermen work in the first or second most dangerous occupation — depending on who you talk to — fishermen can be very casual about the risks they face daily.
So I was not surprised when last week's Maine Fishermen's Forum had a seminar on Saturday titled "Reducing Risk on Deck in the Lobster Fishery" and only about 25 people showed up — eight of them fishermen.
Jennifer Lincoln, the head of NIOSH's Alaska Pacific office, moderated the session. Over a number of years, she and her staff have gone to great lengths to document fatal and non-fatal injuries in the business of commercial fishing.
Lincoln talked about the gathering of that information and, focusing on the Pacific Northwest, some of the things they have done to reduce those numbers. They include the E-Stop, which allows someone wrapped up in a seine winch to immediately shut it off and getting more fishermen to wear PFDs.
Saturday's session, she said, was to be an exchange of information, and the first speaker, researcher Scott Fulmer of the University of Massachusetts Lowell, set the tone. Fulmer, who has conducted ergonomic studies among Bay State fishermen, began by telling the audience, "What we are getting at today is problem solving."
Starting with a photo of a waitress in a torturously painful posture, he pulled the audience into the discussion by getting them to talk about what was wrong in the photo and what could be done to make her job easier.
From there he and the audience went on an ergonomic job analysis of life on deck, with fishermen in the audience describing their own problems.
"Where does it hurt?" Fulmer asked.
"It starts at the wrist, works up to the elbows and the shoulders," said one fisherman.
"Both shoulders and the lower back," said another fishermen.
That was followed by suggestions for reducing ergonomic risk factors.
Francis Coulombe, of the Quebec Fisheries & Aquaculture Center, and Sylvie Montreuil, of Laval University in Quebec City, Quebec, followed Fulmer. They presented an analysis of a study on risk and prevention of fishermen falling overboard from Quebec lobster boats.
Out of 50 incidents, lines on deck accounted for nine people going over board, while 12 went after losing their balance.
Improved line handling was high on the list of ways to prevent going overboard, but so were "cohesion among crew members" and a deck with a non-skid surface.
On a scale of 1 to 10 ranking factors to prevent lobstermen going overboard, line control came in at 6.2, while, surprisingly, captain's attitude was 6.4.
The 25 or so people attending the seminar seemed to get some good information. It's too bad more were not there. After all, it's not as if Maine lobstermen are immune from risk. A story in the Feb. 13, 2014, Portland Press Herald was entitled "Maine lobstermen fall overboard more often than people may think." In the story, David Cousens, president of the Maine Lobsterman's Association, said he had gone over twice, with the rope wrapped around his feet both times.
Oh, well, maybe more will attend next time. Though hopefully it won't take some deaths in Maine's lobster fleet to bring fishermen to the next seminar.
Written by Michael Crowley
Tuesday, 24 February 2015
Even if you believe you don't need one or it's an expense you can't afford, if your boat is 65 feet or longer, and you operate on any navigable U.S. waters, the Coast Guard is requiring you to have an automatic identification system.
The ruling, "Vessel Requirements for Notices of Arrival and Departure and Automatic Identification System" becomes effective March 2. However, you have until March 1, 2016 to install the AIS.
If you aren't aware of this rule, you're not alone. Though the rule has been in the works for about 11 years, the Coast Guard hasn't done a very good job of publicizing it. I just spoke to a Coast Guard fishing vessel safety officer and he didn't become aware of the rule until about a week ago.
The Coast Guard says the purpose of the AIS requirement and the Notice of Arrival and Departure, which affects only commercial vessels 300 gross tons or less coming from a foreign port, "is to improve navigation safety, enhance the Coast Guard's ability to identify and track vessels, and to heighten the Coast Guard's overall situational and maritime domain awareness, which will enhance mariner's navigation safety and the Coast Guard's ability to address threats to maritime transportation security."
Commercial fishermen won't be alone in the Coast Guard's AIS rulemaking. It's estimated that 5,848 commercial boats are affected. Of that total, 2,906 are commercial fishing boats, the largest vessel group subject to the requirement. Another 1,429 tugs and other towing boats make up the next largest group of boats affected. The vessel groups occupying the bottom of the list are school boats —10 — and dredges at 17.
For those who haven't seen the benefit of AIS, the Coast Guard says it's "the most effective tool currently available to enhance a mariner's situational awareness and our own [maritime domain awareness]."
In the comment period to the proposed rulemaking, one concern from several people in the fishing industry was that having to install and use AIS meant that a fishing boat captain's hot spots would no longer be his secret; other boats would quickly join him.
However, the Coast Guard reasoned that the ability of an AIS unit to help a boat navigate safely superseded the need for someone to keep his favorite fishing spots secret.
From a financial standpoint, owners of commercial fishing boats 65 feet and longer did luck out in that they are only required to have class-B AIS and not class A, though they can if they want. That's opposed to other categories, such as passenger boats over 65 feet, which must have class-A AIS.
The Coast Guard figures an average class-B AIS unit costs about $700, whereas the average cost of a class-A unit is $3,230.
Written by Michael Crowley
Tuesday, 17 February 2015
This past Saturday, Valentine's Day, two Maine lobsterman from Matinicus Island came home with a gift that others in their situation have not been so fortunate to receive — they lived to fish another day.
A blizzard was due on Sunday and Craig MacLeod and his son, Samuel, were on their way to the mainland town of Rockland to stock up on supplies. As they got close to the mainland and Monroe Island, their 32-foot boat started taking on water.
Things must have gone downhill fairly fast, for before long the MacLeods were in the water. The air temperature was 7 degrees, the water was 32 degrees, and the wind was blowing 10 knots. In those conditions it's not long before you first start to lose coordination and then consciousness.
But the MacLeods had two things going for them: They had survival suits onboard and they had time to get in them. Then the state ferry on its run from Vinalhaven Island to Rockland spotted the two men, got them into their rescue boat and handed them off to the Coast Guard, after which an emergency medical crew treated and released them.
The MacLeods' gift of life was of their own doing: The boat was equipped with survival suits and they didn't hesitate to put them on. As a Coast Guard officer later told a Bangor Daily News reporter, "We credit them for being prepared. It saved their lives."
The point is, once you drop the mooring and head out of the harbor, your life may depend on being prepared for the worst. That includes having a working radio, an EPIRB, and, yes, PFDs and survival suits. Just ask the MacLeods.
Written by Linc Bedrosian
Tuesday, 10 February 2015
In the Around the Yards West column in National Fisherman's upcoming April issue, one of the Prince William Sound bowpickers being built at Hard Drive Marine in La Conner, Wash., features a pair of engines that the boatyard hadn't used before. I wasn't aware of them and I suspect most fishermen aren't.
It's the Duramax Marine V8, a marinized version of General Motors' 6.6-liter diesel. The engine comes from GM, the marinizing components from Marinediesel Sweden in Angelhom, Sweden, and the marinizing package and engine are matched up at Performance Diesel in Galveston, Texas, the engine's distributor.
The Duramax Marine engine is available in 350-, 400-, 450- and 500-hp Tier 3 models. The engines utilize variable geometry turbocharging for low RPN torque and fast throttle response. There's also a common-rail fuel-injection system.
The engines have been available for about four years and Performance Diesel is starting to seriously try to get into the fish-boat market. Some testing with gillnetters has been done and now there will be an effort to enter the lobster boat market.
The engines have a couple of things going for them. One is the power-to- weight ratio. For instance the VGT500 measures 31" long, 32" wide, 38" high and weighs 992 lbs. That should make it a good replacement for big-block gasoline engines and good for small boats that don't want a lot of extra weight.
Secondly, they are said to be very quiet. In one case Duramax Marine engines were put on airboats in an Alaska bird sanctuary after gas engines proved to be too noisy. The Duramax engines were quiet enough that the birds weren't disturbed.
An interesting feature is the electronic control unit. Marinediesel uses its own ECU in the marinizing package, so some things can be programmed into the ECU that normally couldn't be. For instance, the military wanted an engine with two horsepower options — a combat mode and a patrol mode.
The Duramax engine being used could be set up for dual horsepower. One setting was for 450 horsepower and another for 500. Flip a switch to go from one to the other.
Anyway, check it out. You can visit Performance Diesel online at www.performancediesel.com or call them at (281) 464-2345.Add a comment Add a comment
Written by Michael Crowley
Thursday, 29 January 2015
It's Thursday, Jan. 29, two days after the Northeast's first blizzard of 2015 ripped its way up the coast. If winter wasn't in the air before it sure is now.
Winds over 50 miles an hour generated near whiteout conditions in some spots and left 2 to 3 feet of snow on the ground. In Massachusetts coastal homes were flooded from surging seas and when a seawall collapsed in Marshfield.
Yet at first glance there doesn't seem to be much damage to the Northeast's fishing community. A quick call to the Coast Guard found the only incidents related to the storm involved broken moorings for fishermen in New Hampshire and Maine. Things didn't seem to be much worse for Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut though that hadn't been confirmed.
It could have been a lot worse. Sure, it can always be a lot worse, but I'm talking WORSE — the February Gale of 1862.
Feb. 24 of that year, some 70 schooners out of Gloucester were anchored in close proximity on Georges Bank when a storm blew down out of the Northwest.
It came on so quickly there wasn't time to heave up anchors and run for deeper water to get away from one another. So they did what they could: post two lookouts, one on the fore gaff and another on the main, out of the way of boarding seas. Both were peering to windward — with snow and sleet driving at them, nearly blinding them, spray freezing against eyes, beards and hair — hoping to discern a vessel drifting down on them. If the boat could be seen soon enough, their anchor cable could be cut and a collision avoided. If the vessel couldn't be seen soon enough, the gale force winds would send the drifting schooner careening into the anchored vessel and both would probably sink.
Collisions happened a lot on Feb. 24, 1862. Thirteen schooners and their crews disappeared. Two more were abandoned and their crews rescued by other vessels. The human toll: 120 men, leaving 70 widows and 140 fatherless children.
George Procter's "The Fishermen's Memorial and Record Book" (originally published by Proctor Brothers, Gloucester, 1873) lists all 13 schooners and the crews that were lost, along with the value of the boat and what it was insured for.
Procter also gives an idea what it was like for those waiting back in Gloucester. "The anxiety of those having friends thus exposed was terrible to witness, and, as each vessel rounded Eastern Point, there was the most intense desire to learn her name, and to ascertain if those on board had seen anything of other vessels since the blow. Nearly every vessel met with more or less disaster, losing cable and anchors, booms, masts, or were so badly stove up as hardly to be able to get back to port. One by one they came along until the number narrowed down to thirteen, who with their crews had left port for their last fishing trip."
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The following was released by the Maine Department of Marine Resources on Jan. 22:
The Maine Department of Marine Resources announced an emergency regulation that will support the continued rebuilding effort in Maine’s scallop fishery. The rule, effective January 23, 2016, will close the Muscle Ridge Area near South Thomaston and the Western Penobscot Bay Area.Read more...
Louisiana’s Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, which governs commercial and recreational fishing in the state, got a new boss in January. Charlie Melancon, a former member of the U.S. House of Representatives and state legislator, was appointed to the job by the state’s new governor, John Bel Edwards.
Although much of his non-political work in the past has centered on the state’s sugar cane industry, Melancon said he is confident that other experience, including working closely with fishermen when in Congress, has prepared him well for this new challenge.Read more...