National Fisherman

Boats & Gear 

BG image 9.8.16The Boats & Gear blog explores new construction projects, electronics, gear and equipment with contributions from Jean Paul Vellotti (NF B&G editor) and Michael Crowley (former B&G editor).

You buy yourself a boat, new or used, and you should have a very good idea how much fuel and water can be carried in tanks below the deck. You should also be pretty certain how much product can be carried, whether its 74,000 pounds in four fish holds on a 49-foot Alaska shrimper or five crates of lobsters in a below-deck tank on a 40-foot Maine lobster boat.

2016 0406 BG AshleyNAfter extensive repairs, the Ashley N. is launched back into the water. Jonesport Shipyard photo.Of course, the boats are designed to operate efficiently and safely with all those tanks filled.

But it’s possible you might be packing around a lot more than what are in those tanks, which could affect the boat’s efficiency and safety. Imagine, if you will, 600 gallons of seawater under the cabin sole in a 45-foot lobster boat. That would be about 5,100 pounds, figuring that a gallon of seawater weighs about 8.556 pounds.

That 600 gallons is what Sune Noreen of Jonesport Shipyard, in Jonesport, Maine, found when he cut through the watertight cabin sole of the 45-foot lobster boat Ashley N, which was in for repairs and had just been purchased by a local lobsterman. The water got there as a result of the boat grounding out and leaking through the keel. But since the boat’s new owner had bought the boat in the water he didn’t know about the damaged keel or the leak.

You can find out more about this water issue in “Leaking below the Waterline” in National Fisherman’s May issue. The story starts on page 26. In addition, Noreen, who before he took over the Jonesport Shipyard was repairing fishing boats and surveying them in Alaska, offers some observations on how to avoid unwanted surprises when buying a used boat.

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OK, let's say you’ve got some extra money and have wanted to upgrade your navigation electronics for some time. What makes the most sense, especially in terms of getting you home when everything goes to hell?

2016 0330 2016 BG sextantCaptain Shields of the cod-fishing schooner Sophie Christenson "shoots" the sun during passage through the Bering Sea. File photo.I just about guarantee you it’s something you haven’t thought of. It doesn’t cost that much, though there’s a learning curve involved. Oh, and the marine electronics companies won’t like the choice. You best get yourself a sextant, especially if you are an offshore fisherman. I know, we are talking about an instrument developed in the late 17th century, with antecedents going back to the early Polynesian voyagers’ latitude hook, which, like the sextant, measures the distance between a celestial body and the horizon.

Why the sextant? Because navigation on today’s boats is GPS satellite driven and that can be compromised. That’s why the U.S. Navy has started teaching celestial navigation again to its officers, after dropping sextant skills training and celestial navigation in the 1900s. The Navy is preparing for a time when their ship’s navigation systems shut down.

In case of a cyber attack by a rogue group that hacks into GPS data links, knocks out GPS satellites, or simply jams the signals of a specific GPS satellite, a boat’s navigation systems will be compromised, but the sextant doesn’t have an operating system that can be compromised.

In non-marine settings that type of attack has already been done. Take the case of Sheldon Adelson’s Las Vegas Sands Corp that was hacked by Iranians (probably the government) in February 2015. It was a political attack designed to punish Adelson after he threatened Iran with a nuclear attack.

It’s been described as an IT catastrophe, shutting down the Sand’s casinos and gaining thousands of files and folders with names IT passwords and credit information. Damage was estimated at $40 million

Then Sony Pictures was hacked by North Korea after the studio released the movie The Interview, about an assassination plot against the country’s leader Kim Jong Un. The hackers got company secrets, the social security numbers of 47,000 employees and crippled the studio’s computer systems. The North Koreans said anyone attacking the supreme leader would be “mercilessly destroyed.”

Just in case someone or some country goes after the GPS satellite you are depending on, being able to navigate without a dependence on wheelhouse electronics just may prove valuable.

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Whatever role it is we are playing in our daily life, it never hurts to pause and take a look back to see what came before us and ask what it was like to have been a fisherman or a boatbuilder, say, 60, 90, 171 years ago.

That’s what National Fisherman's 2016 0302 BG PINKYMaine's last working pinky is anchored in Belfast Harbor. Penobscot Marine Museum photoBoats & Gear section has done the past few years in the Yearbook issue. It’s nothing too extensive, just a quick glance astern at the country’s commercial fishing heritage as shown in three boatyards and some boats that have long disappeared.

This year’s issue includes Herbert and Emory Rice, a couple of boatbuilding brothers from the Chesapeake, who started building purse and striker boats in the 1930s.

Out on the West Coast there was William Colberg, who had his first boatyard in 1918. Colberg built a lot of boats other than fishing boats, but at least one fishing boat is still working today, the 37-foot crabber Aimee June.

Then there’s William “Pappy” Frost, the transplanted Canadian who settled in Jonesport, Maine, in 1912 and is credited with building the first modern Maine lobster boat. Oh, and when prohibition rolled around, Frost showed he wasn’t slow to take advantage of a situation, building boats both for the rumrunners and the Coast Guard, which was chasing the rumrunners.

The classic boat section has the story of some of Maine’s early sardine carriers. One of those is the Grayling, which was built in 1915 and looks far more like a yacht than a fishing boat.

In a section on schooners, the emphasis is on the pinky schooner, primarily the 46-foot pinky Maine. She was built in 1845 and fished until about 1926. When she was broken up, there were no more pinky schooners.

I suspect not that many people are familiar with the pinky schooner, but it’s here, so check it out.

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If you are fishing Dungeness crab off the coast of Washington, Oregon or California, you are most apt to be injured when hauling back crab pots and landing them on deck — and the injury is likely to be a fracture. Working the hauling block accounted for 47 percent of the injuries in a recent study on the types and nature of injuries and fatalities within the Dungeness fleet from 2002 to 2014. The study is out of Oregon State University and was published in the latest issue of the journal International Maritime Health.

2016 0222 BG safetyAn ongoing study at Oregon State University is focusing on injuries and safety issues among Dungeness crabbers. Oregon State University photo.In that time period, 28 crabbers died, which confirmed what most people already knew that the Dungeness crab fleet is the deadliest fleet in U.S. waters; the death rate is also 65 times higher than that for all U.S. workers.

While fatal injuries in the crab fleet had previously been studied, the incidence of non-fatal injuries had not been examined. Understanding the nature of the injuries was an important part of the Oregon study. But the 45 injuries within that 12-year-time period was something of a surprise. It’s an injury rate much lower than in many other fisheries: ten times lower than for the Alaska freezer-longline fleet and 13 times lower than the freezer-trawl fleet.

It’s likely that the nonfatal injury numbers is a result to underreporting. “In general,” the report says, “underreporting of occupational injuries from employers has been linked to concerns of financial and regulatory repercussions, and the burden of reporting itself may be a barrier.”

To get a better understanding of injuries and safety issues in general among Dungeness crabbers, Oregon State University’s Laurel Kinci, one of the authors of the study, will be leading focus group meetings with fishermen and surveying fishing crews along the Pacific Coast to learn more about safety and injuries, and develop several interventions to help reduce injuries among crabbers.

Oregon State University
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There’s no getting around the fact that building a new boat or signing up to have your existing boat go through a major restoration is not for the faint of heart. You have to come up with a bunch of money at the start of the project, make periodic payments until the work is completed, and you are putting your means of making a living in the hands of another person. The tension is jacked up if the work needs to be done by a definite date — say, the start of a season.

How do you ensure that the project goes smoothly and that you and the boatbuilder end up shaking hands, instead of any number of unpleasant alternatives?

2016 0203 BGblogWelders at Fashion Blacksmith need a couple more frames before they can weld the sponson plating. Fashion Blacksmith Inc. photo.A good way to start is to following the advice of Ted Long who runs Fashion Blacksmith in Crescent City, Calif., a boatyard that does a lot of sponsoning work: “Talk to fellow boat owners who have been through a similar project that you may be planning, who have been to that yard and can say what happened that they didn’t expect — that cost them money.”

Long is being quoted in “Talking Shop,” starting on page 28 in National Fisherman’s March issue. Long and other long-time boatbuilders on the East Coast and the West Coast offer examples of how things go wrong in a boatyard deal and how to prevent that from happening.

The burden falls on both the boatbuilder and the boat owner. The boat owner should have a good understanding of the boatbuilding or repair process and communicate to the boatbuilder exactly what they want done.

The boatbuilder needs to be very clear about where the customer’s boat is in the work schedule, not hesitate to question some of the boat owner’s choices — they might be unrealistic — then verbally and with pictures keep him informed of the work progress. Of course, there’s the question of add-ons and how much of a financial cushion the boat owner needs, beyond the agreed repair or building price. But it’s all in “Talking Shop” in our March issue. Check it out for yourself.

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You are fishing inshore when the boat snaps hard to port. Another wave slams her and she goes all the way over. It happens so fast you never get off a distress call. What to do?

2016 0125 bg BUDDIESScreenshot of the Pro Chart app's "Buddies" feature courtesy of Jay Stipe.Something like that happened off Florida’s East Coast last month, only it was a recreational boat with five guys in it on a duck-hunting trip. Probably the only reason they all made it back is Jay Stipe, the father of Kevin Stipe, one of the five in the boat, owns the company MiraTrex, which offers the Pro Charts app that works with an iPhone or IPad.

MiraTrex recently added the GPS driven “Buddies” feature to the Pro Charts navigating app after two young boys were lost off the East Coast of Florida in July and never heard from again.

So when Kevin called his father to tell him they were floating in the water, Jay could view his location on the iPad screen and pinpoint the spot with an on-screen icon. He took a screen shot to capture the display in case the signal was lost.

Jay called the St. Pete Coast Guard and gave them the coordinates, much to the surprise of the Coast Guard officer who didn’t expect to get the exact lat-lon numbers. Shortly after that, a helicopter and rescue boat were on the scene.

In addition to displaying an icon of a buddy’s position on screen, the app shows their history for the previous 48 hours.

Kevin’s iPhone and the Pro Charts app with the Buddies feature proved critical in rescuing the five men, but just as important is the fact that Kevin’s iPhone was in a waterproof LifeProof case. Without that case, the iPhone wouldn’t have worked and all five might have perished.

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How many of you have bought into an older fishing boat? Thirty-foot lobster boat or a big, old offshore trawler, you figured you knew what work needed to be done. But once the ripping and tearing out started, you were surprised at how much rebuilding was required to get the boat back fishing. And throw in a very limited time — say ten-and-a-half weeks — to complete the work before the boat has to be back fishing.

2016 0106 BG CMThe Cornelia Marie arrives at Seattle's Northlake Shipyard ready for 10 1/2 weeks of intensive work. Jeff Pond photo.That’s the situation described in the story “Not Your Dad’s Crab Boat” in National Fisherman’s February issue, when Roger Thomas and Kari Toivola bought into the 126-foot crabber the Cornelia Marie. Yup, the same boat that’s been featured on the Discovery Channel’s “Deadliest Catch.”

Despite the work required — replacing the main engines, generators and rebuilding part of the main deck — and what Thomas referred to as “a big obstacle,” which meant rebuilding the accommodation’s area and galley, the Cornelia Marie made in out of Seattle’s Northlake Shipyard in time to start its tendering contract in Bristol Bay.

And the work seems to have been worth it. Now the Cornelia Marie burns 900 to 1,000 gallons a day instead of the previous 1,400. And the noise levels in the accommodations area have been significantly reduced, to the point it’s possible to carry on a normal conversation. But check it out for yourself, starting on page 24 in the February issue.

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All right! Listen up all you highliners and deadbeats. Only a couple of days before — well, you know what I mean — Christmas. Kids are humming Christmas carols while lying near the tree at night, dreaming of eight tiny reindeer dropping down on the roof, landing a sleigh with that jolly old guy and all the toys that are on the lists they gave you. And your spouse, significant other, partner — whatever — continues to come up with a few more trinkets she needs to make up for all those days you’ve been at sea this past year.

2015 1222 BG suitWhite Glacier’s Arctic 25 immersion suit on display at Pacific Marine Expo. Doug Stewart photo.That’s why you’ve been wandering the store aisles with pockets crammed full of gift lists. Of course, as always, there’s someone you forgot. You know who it is. It’s you. So I’m here to remind you that it’s socially acceptable and not illegal to buy a Christmas gift for yourself.

To assist with your personal gift selection, once again I’m providing a few Christmas ideas from National Fisherman’s 2015 Product and AAG pages. Here are four items that are a worthy gift for you know who, starting with the September 2015 issue.

An onboard fire is something no one wants to experience, but if you do, you better have something that puts it out in a hurry. That would be the Flame Guard X-Tinguish FST. When there’s a fire in the engine room, or any other enclosed space, open the door, pull the yellow pin on the X-Tinguish FST, toss it in the room and close the door.

There’s an 8-second delay from the time the pin is pulled until the X-Tinguish FST is electronically activated. The fire should be out within seconds.

Despite the fact the fire is out within seconds, what if someone is injured in events surrounding the fire. You need a way to treat the injury. That’s when you need to be able to grab the Marine 600 Medical Kit, mentioned in NF’s July issue.

The Marine 600 Medical Kit is a supply of first-aid products and basic medical tools contained in a durable waterproof case that floats. The medical kit includes, among other things, medications to treat pain, inflammation, and common allergies. Fractures, sprains and swelling can be managed with a flexible C-Splint, triangular bandage, elastic bandage and cold packs.

If things really go south in a big hurry and you end up in the water, here are the last two gifts that you better have purchased. First, White Glacier’s Arctic 25, a cold water immersion suit that will keep you warm for 25 hours in 0-degree water, as shown in NF’s December issue.

If you don’t get the suit all the way on when you hit the water, zip in up and within 10 minutes your body temperature will be stabilized and within two hours you’ll be almost dry.

Of course, once you are in the water it’s a good idea to have a way to indicate your position. ACR Electronics Aurora Red Hand Flare, in NF’s May issue, does just that. Remove the cap, pull a cord and the flare is activated. At night it burns at 15,000 candelas for 60 seconds, about 21 times brighter than most other flares. During the day, bright smoke shows your position to a boat or rescue helicopter.

There you have it, four personal gifts that when you get in trouble will help you make it back to have another Christmas in 2016.

See you then with another list. Ho. Ho, Ho!

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Commercial fishing boats have to carry flares. It’s three flares inside of three miles. Three miles to 50 miles it’s six red flares, three smoke flares and three aerial flares. If you’re a commercial fisherman you know that. I shouldn’t be telling you something you don’t know.

A flare exercise. U.S. Navy photo.A flare exercise. U.S. Navy photo.Just packing the requisite number of flares isn’t enough. When things go south in a big hurry, when the boat heaves up and starts to go over, you best be able to get to those flares immediately. They don’t do you any good if you have to muck through some locker to find them.

But maybe things happen so fast you can’t get to the flares, no matter how easy their access. So life saving gear, especially the life raft, should have its required flares. If that hadn’t been the case when the 60-foot Leviathan II capsized, everyone would probably have drowned.

It was this past October 25, when two Canadians, Ken Brown and Clarence Smith, were longlining for halibut off British Columbia’s Vargas Island.

As they were hauling back their gear, Brown happened to turn around and see a single flare go off against the afternoon sky. According to news reports, that was the “only signal anyone could see from the capsized wreckage of the MV Leviathan II, which flipped so quickly there was no time to send a mayday call.”

The Leviathan II was a sightseeing boat with 27 people aboard. Brown and Smith hauled people out of the water and off a life raft and onto their boat, which is just shy of 20-feet long. Eventually they carried 13 survivors back to shore. Other boats rescued eight more. Five died and one was listed as missing.

There’s always a certain “what if” element to tragedies. “What if” Brown hadn’t turned around? “What if” that life raft hadn’t been equipped with a rocket flare?

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Noise; heavy, awkward weights; cold, wet weather — it’s all part of a fisherman’s life. It also helps make “commercial fishing the most challenging ergonomic environment,” said Jerry Dzugan, executive director of the Alaska Marine Safety Education Association in a Wednesday morning talk titled “Strains, Sprains and Pains: Ergonomics in the Maritime Industry."

“Anything to do with the body is an ergonomic issue,” said Dzugan. That’s another way of saying the goal of a smart work environment is to adapt the work station to be as efficient and comfortable as possible for the workers.

2015 1118 JerryDzuganJerry Dzugan. Photo: Doug StewartA simple principle is that the further a weight is from the body the more the body is stressed. So a fish plant worker constantly bending over a large table to pull halibut to her would be better served with a narrower table so she wouldn’t have to bend over as much.

Dzugan gave several examples of proper posture when handling heavy weights and some surprising examples of the forces at play on a body. One photo showed a 6-foot 2-inch, 185-pound man reaching out to pick up a pen. Dzugan says that action has the same compressive forces on the body as lifting an 80-pound box.

Translate that to fishing and “a fisherman bending over to pick up line all day off the deck could end up with 1,000 pounds of compressive forces on his back by the end of the day,” said Dzugan.

It didn’t take long before the audience was grasping the difference between good and poor work habits. So when Dzugan offered up a photo on the screen of deck hands loading crab into a brailer and asked from ergonomic point of view what was wrong in the photo, several people pointed out that the brailer was too high. Throwing the crabs into the brailer meant the deckhands had to lift the crabs above their shoulders over and over again, risking an injury to the shoulders. The simple solution: lower the brailer.

Visit the AMSEA booth — 1128 — or their website to get your own pocket guide to ergonomics.

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Page 2 of 13

Inside the Industry

It’s no secret that fraud is a problem in the seafood industry. Oceana repeatedly touts a mislabeling epidemic. While their method has been criticized, the perception of rampant fraud  has been established.

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The Center for Coastal Studies recently announced that Owen Nichols, Director of the Center for Coastal Studies’ Marine Fisheries Research Program, has been selected as this year’s recipient of the John Annala Fishery Leadership Award by the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. 

Read more ...
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